A selection of photographs taken during a recent visit to Pozieres British Cemetery.
Pozieres is a village about six kilometres north-east of Albert, and the cemetery is a south-west of the village on the north side of the main road (D929) from Albert to Pozieres.
According to the Commonwealth War Graves Commission website, the village of Pozieres was attacked on July 23, 1916 by the 1st Australian and 48th (South Midland) Divisions, and was taken on the following day.
It was lost on March 24-25, 1918, during the great German advance, and recaptured by the 17th Division on the following 24 August.
Here are three Australian graves from the cemetery: Privates DB Harford, FB Dowling and L Robinson.
There are 2,760 Commonwealth servicemen buried or commemorated in this cemetery -1,382 of the burials are unidentified but there are special memorials to 23 casualties known or believed to be buried among them. There is also one German soldier buried here.
This grave contains the remains of Military Medal winner, Private D Cottingham.
A brief story of two Royal Welch Fusiliers who were wounded at battles for woods on the Somme.
Their graves are located in the cemetery at Abbeville, which was some way from the front.
I took these photos some years ago and now the wonderful Anne Pedley, of the Royal Welch Fusiliers Museum in Caernarfon, has helped me piece together parts of the stories of Ceredig Ellis and Edward Roberts.
Second Lieutenant Ellis, whose parents were from Aberystwyth, was married to Mildred and lived 61 Oxton Road, Wallasey, Cheshire.
He was educated at Bangor University where he was a member of the OTC.
He was commissioned on February 1, 1915. He was transferred to 15th RWF (the London Welsh) and joined the battalion in France.
He saw action with D Company and was wounded at Mametz Wood on July 11, 1916.
He was to die of these wounds, most likely at Abbeville where there was a large military hospital.
As the inscription on the grave indicates Mildred had recently given birth to their first child.
The second fusilier, CSM Roberts, enlisted with 10th RWF and embarked to France on September 27, 1915.
He received the Military Medal for bravery while in trenches in the Kemmel area, where the Fusiliers defended themselves against a German gas and an infantry attack.
He also fought at High Wood and it was during fighting there that he was first reported missing and then wounded.
He died of his wounds at Abbeville ten days later.
At 8.30am on July 7, 1916, the 38th (Welsh) Division began its attack on Mametz Wood.
The capture of the wood was key to a successful attack on the German second line in this area of the Somme battlefield.
The first advance floundered in chaos 200-300 yards short of the wood, and a further attack at 11am met with the same fate.
The Germans were well dug in and to approach the wood the attacker had to cross an open field.
After 15 hours of continuous fighting the Welsh were forced to regroup.
During the afternoon of July 11, the decision was taken to withdraw the Welsh Division from the battle area.
The 38th Division was relieved by the 21st Division, which cleared the remainder of Mametz Wood by midday on July 12, encountering little resistance.
The Welsh Division did not have the satisfaction of seeing the job through and witnessing the total capture of Mametz Wood.
As this detailed article by Dr Robin Barlow, of Aberystwyth University, notes: “The human toll at the battle of Mametz was a high one.
“Between 7-12 July, 911 NCOs and other ranks from the Welsh Division lost their lives, plus 37 officers. In addition, many hundreds more men would have been posted missing, their bodies never recovered. The 16th (CardiffCity) Battalion, Welsh Regiment suffered the greatest loss with 153 men and five officers killed, 129 of whom (and three officers) died on July 7.
“The 14th (Swansea) Battalion, Welsh Regiment had entered its first major engagement of the First World War on July 10 with 676 men; by nightfall, 75 men and one officer had died, with a further 376 casualties. More than half the Battalion was lost in one day.
“The attacking strength of the 17th Battalion, Royal Welsh Fusiliers was recorded as ‘950 bayonets’; on July 12 Emlyn Davies transmitted a message to 115th Brigade headquarters, ‘strength 5 Officers, 142 Other Ranks’.”
The battle has gained an iconic status in Wales.
Dr Barlow writes: “Although the name of Mametz Wood has come to symbolise the sacrifice and commitment of Welsh troops in the First World War, their actual contribution – and even their bravery – is wreathed in controversy and debate. Was it a glorious success or a chaotic failure?
“In the words of the officers of a neighbouring division, the advance of the Welsh Division on July 10 was ‘one of the most magnificent sights of the war’, as wave after wave of men were seen ‘advancing without hesitation’.”